Kevan Richardson, Jaguar's program manager for sports cars, explains the aluminum construction of the Jaguar F-Type at a media test drive in Los Angeles. (Jaguar)
This weekend we Yankees celebrate our divorce from Mother England. But the families are closer than ever. England’s our trustiest ally, we worship Kate Middleton, and we fancy aluminum in our signature vehicles.
Driven by draconian federal mpg regulations, the best-selling Ford F-150 is Detroit’s first mass production vehicle with aluminum skin. The lightweight pickup can trace its heritage back to Ford’s ownership of England’s lightweight Jaguar sports cars, which helped pioneer aluminum design over a decade ago. The two companies are no longer married, but they share bonds, explains Kevan Richardson, Jaguar’s program manager for sports cars.
“When Ford came in we got a lot of help with quality, processes, and financial discipline,” says Richardson, a wiry, straight-shooting Brit. “And they have transferred (our aluminum skills) back to their homeland.”
As the 2015 F-150 shows off its radical aluminum panels, Richardson is touring the U.S. with an aluminum F of his own. A taut, aluminum chassis is the backbone for Coventry’s sleekest, fastest cat yet — the snarling, 550 horsepower, 2015 Jaguar F-Type (read my review here). Will we someday see an aluminum-chassis Ford? I sat down with Richardson to talk materials, the nanny state, and the F-Type/F-150 odd couple.
Q: Is the F-Type the first, all-aluminum Jag?
Richardson: No. We started with aluminum in 2001 when we delivered the XJ. Then XK . . . was delivered in 2006, so that was effectively generation two. With F-Type we are on to the next generation.
Q: Was Jaguar the first production brand to use aluminum?
Richardson: No. Audi has had aluminum for a while. But without being disrespectful to them, their techniques are maybe a little backward compares to ours. We are fortunate (because) Coventry has always had a very good heritage in motor manufacturing — in building high speed cars and airplanes that were aluminum.
Q: Was your conversion to all-aluminum cars driven by performance or regulations?
Richardson: It’s kind of chicken and egg. In the 1990s Ford started to buy a lot of Bauxite mines. They were quite visionary about their material choice for the future. We were their premium brand. They decided that we were going to be the proving ground. We learned an awful lot about aluminum’s structural properties: Fuel economy is better, handling is better, the car is more balanced
Q: Was cost a factor?
Richardson: Aluminum is more expensive than steel. Fact. Carbon fiber — much lighter again — is not practical for high volume production. If you want a one-off performance race car, then carbon fiber is your game. But if you want to make high volume then aluminum is probably the best material. We reckon that if the F-Type were steel, that would be (220 more pounds) which is .3 seconds in zero-60. That’s a big deal when everyone wants to be at four seconds.
Q: How does aluminum challenge you?
Richardson: Aluminum is very difficult to work — especially in a shapely car like the F-Type. A truck (is) a good vehicle to make with aluminum, because it’s got big flat surfaces. Working with the F-Type, we’ve had to create a lot of new techniques to create the shape that we need, But with a truck there isn’t a lot of form.
Q: Regulations increasingly pinch what you can do — you can no longer have a leaping Jaguar hood ornament, for example. Could you make an E-Type today with a long nose?
Richardson: No. If you are in the driver’s seat, there’s something called a “vision angle” that says you have to see a certain distance in front of the car from the driver’s seat. In Europe, if you are unfortunate enough to have a collision with a pedestrian, then they have to meet a certain level of head injury criteria. So . . . in our car the bonnet deploys with a couple of actuators which fire the bonnet which creates survival space between the bonnet and the engine so that if (someone’s) head hits the bonnet you have space. The bonnet rolls them away.
Q: You now have aluminum in Jaguars, Corvettes, F-150s. What’s next?
Richardson: The industry is moving to aluminum. In 20 years, I think aluminum will be the choice for every car. It’ll have to be.
Henry Payne is auto critic for The Detroit News. Find him at firstname.lastname@example.org or Twitter @HenryEPayne.