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Mexico City — The second round of talks on renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement ended Tuesday amid resistance to discussing Mexico’s low wages and large differences over dispute resolution mechanisms.

The head negotiators for all three countries at the talks in Mexico City said progress had been made, but Mexican Economy Secretary said there were still areas where big differences remain.

“The strategy is to conclude in the short term those things that can be concluded” and then tackle the thornier issues, Guajardo said. He said more progress has been made on a few of the easier issues like telecommunications.

But those close to the talks say relatively few concrete proposals appear to have been made on contentious issues like dispute-resolution mechanisms, seasonal farm tariffs and regional content rules. E-commerce also appears to be a sticky issue, in part because U.S. firms are more advanced in the field.

The United States wants to eliminate the current system of private arbitration panels, known as Chapter 19, while Canada wants to keep them. The panels can overrule tariffs, making it harder for the United States to unilaterally block products.

“It is clear that there are differing positions on Chapter 19,” Guajardo said.

Produce growers, many of whom have operations in all three countries, said they like the current dispute resolution system, adding that changing it might force them to adjudicate disputes in courts in one of the three countries, a prospect they don’t relish.

“I think industries across all three countries have found Chapter 19 to be an effective, timely method for dealing with disputes,” said the head of the United Fresh Produce Association, Thomas Stenzel. Repealing it “could certainly make it a much more complicated, legalistic process.”

U.S. Trade Representative Robert E. Lighthizer said, “We have found mutual agreement on many important issues,” but didn’t offer more specifics.

The U.S. also wants to tighten labor standards and local content rules in products like autos. But business groups want to keep wages out of the talks.

“I think mandating wages becomes very difficult across multiple countries,” said Stenzel. “Within the trade agreement itself we believe that the workers’ standards of fair treatment, addressing forced labor, child labor, those issues, is appropriate. But when it comes to wages we don’t feel that that is as appropriate in the trade agreement.”

Mexico has drawn plants and investments by capitalizing on low wages and weak union rules, and Mexican business and labor leaders appear to be resistant to any attempt to tighten labor standards or ensure that Mexican wages rise.

Mexican and Canadian auto unions have said in a report that Mexican autoworkers earn about $3.95 an hour, which is about one-ninth of average wages north of the border.

The United States also wants to increase minimum levels of regional content in products like autos, so that fewer parts are imported from Asia or Europe, assembled in Mexico and labelled “made in North America.”

Stenzel said proposal growers also don’t like the idea of seasonal anti-dumping tariffs, though he said that proposal appears not to have been formalized yet. Such measures seek to protect producers like tomato growers in Florida against surges in Mexican imports. Stenzel and other big producers fear it could be extended to apply to other crops.

The big fruit and vegetable growers, whose industry is among those that have benefited most from NAFTA , appear to want little change in the pact.

“If it isn’t broke, don’t fix it,” said Mario Andrade of Mexico’s national berry exporters association.

The five days of talks in Mexico City were held in 25 working groups. The first round of talks took place in Washington in mid-August and the next round will be held Sept. 23-27 in Ottawa, Canada.

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